COVID-19 infection growth rates, lagged mortality rates, and other interesting statistics

Update 3/11/2020: I’ve posted a follow up that uses the background laid out in this article to create a statistical model that estimates the future number of coronavirus cases in the United States.
Update 3/18/2020: I’ve added a second follow up using more recent data to project growth globally.
Update 4/10/2020: Recent data indicates that the US is on a tragic path toward experiencing more infections and mortalities from coronavirus than any other developed country on the planet.